We used a molecular phylogenetic approach to investigate species delimitations and diversification in the mussel drills of the Ocinebrina edwardsii complex by means of a combination of nuclear (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS2) and mitochondrial [cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S] sequences. Our sample included 243 specimens ascribed to seven currently accepted species from 51 sites. Five of the samples were from either the type locality of a nominal species or a close nearby locality (O. edwardsii from Corsica, O. carmelae and O. piantonii from the Kerkennah Islands, O. hispidula from the Gulf of Gabès and O. leukos from the Canary Islands), one from the inferred original locality (O. ingloria from Venice Lagoon), and specimens assigned in the recent literature to O. nicolai. We used a combination of distance- and tree-based species delimitation methods to identify Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs) to compare with the a?priori species identifications. The consensus tree obtained by BEAST on the COI alignment allows the recognition of several distinct clades supported by the three species delimitation methods employed. The eight-MOTUs scenario, shared by the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) and Generalized Mixed Yule-Coalescent (GMYC) methods, comprises the following major clades: clade A contains the south Tunisian species Ocinebrina piantonii Cecalupo, Buzzurro & Mariani from which the sympatric taxon O. carmelae Cecalupo, Buzzurro & Mariani (new synonym) cannot be separated; clades B and C bring together all populations from the Aegean Sea and some from the Ionian Sea, respectively; clade D groups, on the one hand, the south Tunisian samples morphologically assigned to O. hispidula Pallary and, on the other, Atlantic and Alboran Sea samples (including the Canarian taxon O. leukos Houart); clade E includes a sample from the type locality of O. edwardsii and several samples from the Tyrrhenian Sea; clades F and G correspond to a few samples from the Venice Lagoon and the Tyrrhenian Sea, respectively; clade H groups the bulk of samples from the Adriatic Sea, including samples from the Venice Lagoon morphologically identified as Ocinebrina ingloria (Crosse), and some from the Ionian Sea. No final conclusions could be reached to reconcile the currently recognized morphological taxa with the clades suggested by the COI data. The geographical structure proposed by the mitochondrial markers is similar to that found in other marine invertebrates and partially corresponds to the species defined by shell characters. We propose here a framework for the revision of the Ocinebrina edwardsii species complex, suggesting a geographical pattern for the diversification of this group in the studied area.