The clown anemonefish ‘Nemo’ Amphiprion ocellaris is the most popular fish species in the global marine ornamental trade and also its host sea anemones Heteractis magnifica, Stichodactyla gigantea, and Stichodactyla mertensii are traded. However, total catch and the potential impact of exploitation of these target organisms in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia, are not known. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the fishery on populations of A. ocellaris and its host anemones and how management could be improved. In order to obtain a comprehensive view on the marine ornamental fishery and trade of these species in Spermonde, this study also investigated the socioeconomics of the marine ornamental fishery and the catch records for A. ocellaris and it's host anemones. The study revealed that both, A. ocellaris and sea anemone densities were significantly lower at coral reefs with high exploitation (HE) than at reefs with low exploitation (LE). The total body length and group size of A. ocellaris was also significantly smaller at HE than at HL sites. The yearly amount traded by middlemen is estimated to 140 000 specimens of A. ocellaris and 31 000 anemones. The socioeconomic analysis showed that educational level of marine fishermen family members was low; most of them only finished elementary school. The household income analysis showed that marine ornamental fishery was not the major source of income, covering 13-43% of the expenses, with the exception of one studied island (84%). These findings revealed a considerable negative impact of marine ornamental fishery on the target populations and therefore, the implications for management strategies and conservation are discussed, including fish size restrictions for collectors, marine protected areas and regular monitoring of the amount of trade at middlemen.