In this study, we have investigated the phylogeny and the antagonistic interactions of culturable bacteria isolated from the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus collected from Aber and Morgat, both located in Crozon peninsula, France. Bacteria were isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of ten specimens by using conventional culture-dependent method and then investigated by using phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. Assays for antagonistic interactions among the bacterial strains were performed; bacteria (including at least one strain representative of each OTU identified) were screened for antimicrobial substance production. So, 367 bacterial strains were isolated on marine-agar. On the basis of morphological characteristics, 180 strains were sequenced and 94 OTUs were classified. The dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, with a high abundance of the strains belonging to the genus Psychrobacter. From the antagonistic interactions assays, it could be determined that 22.7% strains were positive for at least one antagonism interaction, 18.3% of them isolated from the sea urchins collected in Morgat. We hypothesize that the bacteria isolated in this study may represent the transitory microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of P. lividus, and that this microbiota may be related to the diet of this marine invertebrate. Furthermore, our results suggest that chemical antagonism could play a significant role in shaping the bacterial communities within gastrointestinal tract of the sea urchins. In addition, most isolated bacteria may have promising biotechnology applications.